Grouse plant - growing and care: soil, transplant. Species of hazel grouse
Fritillaria or Grouse - a genus of perennial bulbous plants of the lily family, which has about one hundred and fifty species, sometimes very different from each other. Fritillaria are widespread in the temperate latitudes of North America, Asia and Europe and are represented by both undersized (5-10 cm in height) and very large (up to 120 cm) species. The Latin name for the flower comes from "fritillus", which means "chessboard" or "vessel for dice," the first meaning describing the variegated colors of some species, like the Russian name "hazel grouse", and the second meaning the shape of the flower.
Hazel grouse plant
Hazel grouse - ephemeroids, that is, plants with a very short growing season. The hazel grouse bulb consists of wide fleshy scales, some of which are hidden in the axils of the buds of the new bulbs. A stem grows from the bulb with numerous narrow-linear or lanceolate-oblong leaves that have a whorled or scattered arrangement along the stem. Bracts are erect or spirally screwed. Flowers, single or collected in an umbrella or panicle, are located at the top of the stem. The simple perianth is brightly colored (red, white, yellow, purple), often spotted, bell-shaped, consists of six petals, at the base of each of which there is a nectary. The fruit is a three-celled hexagonal capsule with flat seeds.
Species of hazel grouse
In culture, the most widespread was Grouse imperial (Fritillaria imperialis), or "Turkish hazel grouse", "Royal crown"known in Europe since the sixteenth century. The bulbs are up to 15 cm in diameter, the plant reaches 1.2 m in height, there are usually six flowers in a yellow-red-orange range, above them, at the end of the peduncle, there is a bunch of leaves similar to a crown. Chess hazel grouse (Fritillaria meleagris) - a perennial plant up to 35 cm tall, the leaves are linear-lanceolate, the flowers are usually solitary, drooping, bell-shaped, white or dark red with a pronounced checkerboard pattern, in culture - since 1519.
Grouse Mikhailovsky (Fritillaria michailowskyi), first described in 1904, was rediscovered by the British in 1983. Grows naturally in Turkey. The plant is only 20cm tall, a characteristic feature is a yellow border along the edge of maroon flowers. Persian hazel grouse (Fritillaria persica) - tall species. Grows in Turkey, Israel, Jordan and Iran. Stem up to 1.2 m in height, at the top - up to 30 purple flowers, very much in demand in floristry. Russian hazel grouse (Fritillaria ruthenica) - a graceful plant up to 0.5 m tall with a thin stem, in the upper part of which narrow twisted leaves grow, with which the plant holds on to a support. At the very top of the stem are brown-purple flowers with a blurred checkerboard pattern. Cultivated since 1877.
Grouse growing and care
Fritillaria are undemanding plants, the main condition is the absence of stagnant water in the soil. They can be planted both in the shade and in the sun, but it is advisable to protect them from drafts. If the spring is dry, provide them with good watering. The soilneed nutritious, with the addition of coarse sand and humus. Large bulbs are buried by 20-25 cm, smaller ones - by 10-15 cm, children - by 6-10 cm. For the winter, the area with hazel grouses needs to be covered. Planting of hazel grouse can be done every year, but without transplanting it grows well in one place for up to 5 years.
After flowering, the aerial part of the plant dies off, the leaves turn yellow, the peduncles dry up - it's time for transplants... The bulbs are dug up, stored at a temperature of about 25 ° C for five weeks in a ventilated room. As soon as roots appear or shoots grow, plant them. Hazel grouses tolerate cold weather well, but in winters with little snow they need to be covered with material that does not cake - spruce branches, straw or reeds.
Each hazel grouse bulb forms two daughter bulbs, which and breedsplant. Seed propagation can also be used, but hazel grouse seeds quickly lose their germination, so it is better not to take risks and use a vegetative propagation method, especially since it is less laborious.
- Information about Garden Plants
- Information on Perennial Plants
Sections: Garden plants Perennials Blooming Bulbous flowers Liliaceae Plants on P Plants on F
Flower hazel grouse imperial or royal (crown) - planting and care, photo
The imperial crown or hazel grouse (Fritillaria imperialis) is one of the most characteristic garden plants - it is difficult to confuse it with any other. The term "imperial crown" is not surprising, as the proudly raised, tall, tough shoots of the plant are crowned with a beautiful inflorescence, consisting of 6-8 bell-shaped flowers, over which a crown of green leaves grows. Below we will tell you how to properly grow imperial hazel grouse - features of planting and caring for this plant.
- Description of the plant
- Interesting varieties
- When to plant?
- Where to plant?
- Bulb selection
- Preparing the soil for planting, planting
- Autumn care, wintering
- Spring care
- Summer care
- Growing problems
- Why isn't the crown blooming?
- Use in garden decoration
Grouse flower - description
Grouse flowers are perennial plants that reproduce by underground bulbs, consisting of several fleshy scales. Some species of scales that have grown together as a whole, some only half, there are species with non-accrete scales, and there are those that have buds in their axils that give life to a new plant. Grouse bulbs are renewed annually. They consist of lower scales, and they usually do not have integumentary scales. From the hazel grouse bulb, a stem rises with narrow-linear or oblong-lanceolate leaves, located whorled or scattered. Bracts are erect or spirally twisted. Large drooping bell-shaped or kubarevidny flowers, single or forming an umbrella-shaped or paniculate inflorescence at the top of the stem, can be colored yellow, red, white, purple, and can be spotted. At the base of each perianth leaf there is a triangular, round or oval depression - a nectary. The fruit of the hazel grouse is a hexagonal three-celled capsule with numerous seeds.
Many species of hazel grouse are poisonous because they contain alkaloids, but bulbs such as the hazel grouse are edible: the North American Indians and Kamchadals called them "northwest rice". Some other tubers were eaten instead of bread. In addition, in Tibetan and Chinese folk medicine, many species of hazel grouse are used as a healing potion.
Planting hazel grouses
The best time for planting and transplanting fritillaria-grouse is the first days of September. If you notice that the roots are beginning to grow on the stored bulbs, then it is time to plant them.
Before planting, the bulbs are carefully inspected for disease and rot. Healthy bulbs are selected and, right up to planting, stored in sawdust or peat, avoiding prolonged exposure to the open air.
The depth of planting of fritillaria bulbs depends on their size: large bulbs are buried on and small ones - on In general, the following rule is true: the planting depth should be times the size of the bulb. A well-buried bulb is like an anchor that keeps the plant upright throughout the growing season.
The distance between adjacent plants in a row and between rows should be at least Imperial grouse and other large-flowered varieties are planted at a distance -
Bulbs should be handled with care during planting, taking care not to damage them. After planting, it is recommended to mulch the soil around.
Fritillaria: the need for a transplant
For hazel grouses, an annual transplant is recommended - this way they get sick less and bloom better. The transplant keeps the plants in good shape.
Young bulbs are dug up and stored in wet sand until planting, otherwise they may die. Adult bulbs are dug up years after the aerial part has completely died out.
Grouse are planted in the fall. Adult maternal bulbs are used as planting material. They can be split in half. Children who have grown up near adult bulbs are also buried in the ground. They are preliminarily separated from the mother. True, they will grow for a long time (3-4 years) before throwing out the flowering stem.
Grouse are buried in the ground in September, rarely in October. By the time of planting, small roots should appear on the bulbs. It is undesirable to bury the bulbs later than November. The optimal time for planting is dry and warm September.
Before planting, it is advisable to dig up the earth, remove weeds, fertilize with rotted compost (half a bucket per square meter), dilute with peat and sand. The soil should not be heavy, clayey, cold and too moist. For planting, a shallow hole is dug. A little sand is poured at the bottom - this way you can protect the bulb from decay.
Before planting, the bulbs must be disinfected. The planting material is disinfected in a solution of fungicide (Maxim) or potassium permanganate. The bulbs are irrigated with diluted weakly concentrated preparations.
Grouse are planted in a well-lit area, sheltered from the winds. It is advisable not to choose lowlands where water will accumulate after rain. The hazel grouses do not tolerate swampy soil. From excess moisture, they will begin to rot and may not bloom. It is best to plant flowers on a mound. Because of the unpleasant garlic smell, many gardeners try to plant hazel grouses in the background, in a distant garden bed or in a vegetable garden.
The hazel grouse, depending on the age and size of the bulbs, are buried in the ground to a depth of 10-30 centimeters. Adult mother bulbs are planted deep (30 centimeters), babies - close to the surface (10 centimeters). The distance to the neighboring plant should be 25-35 centimeters. It is advisable not to lay the bulbs evenly, but to plant them at an angle of 90 degrees.
How to transplant
The hazel grouse is dug out after it has faded. The adult mother bulb and the babies that appear are separated, and dried all summer in a dry, shaded place at a temperature of 20-25 degrees Celsius. In September, they are transplanted to a new site. For the bulb, prepare the ground (loosen and fertilize). Dig a shallow hole, sprinkle it with sand and insert an onion into it. It is covered with earth and watered with water.
Types and varieties of hazel grouse with photos and names
Due to the huge number of species of hazel grouse, all these plants are divided into several sections, grouping them by places of growth, flower shape, etc. Each of them contains certain types of fritillaria, some of which are found especially often in gardening.
Section I Eufritillaria
The first section combines Mediterranean, West European and West Asian species. The most famous of them is the hazel grouse. This plant has been used in culture since the 16th century, and its name is associated with its unusual color. Its bushes reach a height of 35 cm. Hanging bell flowers are located singly, less often in pairs. Their color most often combines purple and brown tones, with dark and light areas forming a checkerboard pattern. Many decorative varieties were obtained on the basis of this hazel grouse. Among them:
- Alba and Aphrodite - varieties with white flowers.
- Artemis - flowers combine purple and greenish color.
- Jupiter - forms large red flowers.
In addition to the chess hazel grouse, this section also includes such species as:
- Mountain - has brownish flowers with a dark speck.
- Yellow - with yellow flowers with a light brown checkerboard pattern.
- Needle-lobed - with burgundy green flowers.
- Caucasian - Red Data Book species with bluish-purple flowers.
- Mikhailovsky - forms burgundy flowers with a yellow border around the edge.
- Checkerboard (or small) - with dark reddish-brown flowers and a weak pattern.
Section II Petilium
The section brings together especially large plants that live in Turkey, Iraq, as well as Turkmenistan and the west of the Himalayas. The most common species in this section is the royal hazel grouse, also known as the imperial or "royal crown". This Turkish species came to European countries at the end of the 16th century, and today it includes about 20 different forms. The bulbs of such a plant have a specific unpleasant smell, and its stems reach a meter in height. The foliage is arranged in whorls. The drooping flowers are quite large - up to 6 cm in diameter. Their color is bright orange, with a brown speck at the base and the same veins. Above the flowers is the foliage of the plant, giving it a resemblance to a palm tree. Main varieties:
- Aurora - a medium-sized bush (up to 60 cm tall), forming red-orange flowers.
- Lutea - variety with golden flowers. The height of the bushes reaches 1 m.In the Luteya Maxima variety, the bushes are even higher - up to 1.2 m.
- Sulferino - forms orange flowers with a red mesh pattern.
Other types of this section include:
- Radde - a hardy species with light yellow or greenish yellow flowers.
- Edward - significantly similar to the imperial look, but its bulbs do not have an unpleasant odor. The flowers are reddish brown or orange.
Section III Theresia
This group includes only one West Asian species - Persian hazel grouse. Its flowers have a deep purple, almost black color. There are other forms of this type, differing in cream, light green, brown or variegated color of flowers.
Section IV Rhinopetalum
It combines species that live in Afghanistan, as well as in western China. Plants are distinguished by an unusual arrangement of flowers for hazel grouse: they are directed to the sides, and not down. Their perianths are thinner and slightly transparent, and their predominant color is monochromatic.
The section includes Bukhara (white-flowered) hazel grouse, as well as several species with pink-lilac or pale pink flowers (Arian, Bukhara, Karelin).
Section V Korolkowia
The group includes only one species - Severtsov's hazel grouse. This endemic is found only in Central Asian countries. The color of its flowers combines the tones of yellow and brown.
Section VI Liliarhyza
The section includes North American species with flowers that resemble small lilies. Among them is the gray hazel grouse. It forms miniature bushes up to 15 cm tall. The oblong flowers are golden yellow in color, and in the inner part they are decorated with small brown specks. In Europe, such a plant is cultivated only as a greenhouse.
The hazel grouse is also quite common. Among its varieties:
- Wayne Roderick - Chinese variety. The flowers have an iridescent color, combining tones of brown and emerald colors, the upper part is painted green, and on the surface there are reddish or dark spots.
- Limelight - the bushes reach a height of 60 cm. The flowers are green and decorated with olive specks.
Among others, the section includes two-flowered (with chocolate-greenish flowers) and Kamchatka (with purple or bronze flowers) hazel grouses.