Douglas Aster Plant Info: Caring For Douglas Aster Flowers In Gardens
By: Teo Spengler
Douglas aster plants (Symphyotrichumsubspicatum) are native perennials growing in the Pacific Northwest. Theybloom all season long, producing attractive, papery flowers without much plant carerequired. If you are interested in growing Douglas asters in your backyard,you’ll want to learn more about this species. Read on for Douglas aster plantinformation.
Douglas Aster Plant Info
Douglas aster plants grow in the wild in the area known asthe coast forest in California, Oregon and Washington. This is the areaextending from the ocean to the subalpine mountain area. You’ll also findDouglas aster flowers in northwestern Canada and throughout Alaska. The bloomsof this perennial look a lot like NewEngland aster flowers.
Douglas aster was named after David Douglas, a botanistworking in the Northwest region of the United States. The Douglasfir also carries his name.
Douglas aster flowers are very popular with gardeners in thePacific Northwest coastal areas. They are ray flowers (like daisies)with bright purple-blue papery petals and a yellow central disk. According toDouglas aster information, the flowers put on a show from July throughSeptember. The plant is very hardy, with creeping rhizomes that help it spread.
Growing Douglas Asters
You can start growing Douglas asters if you live in an areawhere they will thrive. Propagate a new plant by dividing a mature flowerclump, taking basil cuttings or planting seeds.
Douglas aster flowers usually grow best in moist,well-drained soil. But they sometimes thrive in wetland areas. They need alocation in sun or partial shade. The ideal climate for them will offer longdays while the plant is getting started, then shorter days when it is flowering– much like other asters.
Douglas Aster Plant Care
In terms of Douglas aster plant care, remember that theseare tough native plants and require little in terms of care once established.They tolerate drought and show robust growth in most conditions.
They are used to taking care of themselves in the wild and,therefore, Douglas aster care is minimal. If you choose to fertilize, use abalanced product. Leachthe soil to avoid salt build up.
In addition to the flower display they offer, Douglas asterplants help local wildlife. They attract many types of pollinating insects,including many species of butterfliesand bees.Given their long bloom period, you can watch a progression of pollinatorsdevelop as the season passes.
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Sold out varieties will be restocked at the end of the growing season. All seed varieties are grown at our farm and/or locally wildcrafted by us. The seeds are hand-gathered and hand-processed in small batches each year. We will update the website as soon as the seeds are ready in the fall.
New World Asters (American Asters)
Asteraceae (daisies, sunflowers)
Missouri has 24 species of New World asters. They can be difficult to identify to species. Most bloom in late summer and fall. Most are perennial herbs growing from short, stout rhizomes, with 1 or a few upright stems. (Only two species are taprooted annuals, and these are introduced and rare to uncommon.) The flower clusters are usually relatively elongated (not appearing flat-topped). This page serves to introduce Missouri’s native asters as a group.
Depending on the species, the ray flowers of our native asters may be lavender, pink, bluish, or white. Although each species most commonly occurs in a particular color form, individual plants within each species may have an unusual color. For example, a typically bluish-flowering species may occasionally have individuals that bloom white, or vice versa. Also, both ray and disk flowers may change color as they mature and age. Thus the flower color is not as helpful as you might hope.
The yellow disk flowers at the center of the flowerheads typically turn reddish over time.
To identify the various species of New World asters, you must look at a variety of characters, including details of the basal, lower, and upper stem leaves the hairiness of the plant and the types of hairs, if present the shape, configuration, and other details of the involucral bracts (the leafy scales under the flowerheads) and the measurements of various plant parts. For accurate identification of individual species, we recommend volume 2 of Steyermark’s Flora of Missouri (Yatskievych, 2006). This web page is just an introduction.
Twenty-four species of New World asters in genus Symphyotrichum have been recorded for Missouri:
- Many-rayed (woodland) aster (S. anomalum). Scattered, mostly in the Ozarks and eastern half of northern Missouri, especially in glades, upland prairies and woodlands, and other dry, rocky areas. Involucral bracts are reflexed (bent backward), and the leaves are soft. Typically blooms purple to blue (rarely white), July–November.
- Rayless alkali aster (S. ciliatum). Native to western and northern states introduced, collected in Missouri only once, along a railroad in Clay County. This species at first seems to have no petal-like ray florets, but actually there are several rows of them, with the petal portion of each poorly developed. This species is a taprooted annual. Typically blooms pink to pale purple, August–September.
- Blue wood aster (S. cordifolium). Scattered nearly statewide. Bottomland forests, rich upland forests, banks of streams and rivers, bases and ledges of bluffs. Typically blooms purplish blue to lavender, August–November.
- Drummond aster (S. drummondii). Scattered nearly statewide, in a wide variety of habitats. In wetter sites, it sometimes grows with blue wood aster (S. cordifolium), and in drier sites it sometimes occurs with white arrowleaf aster (S. urophyllum). It may hybridize with both, creating plants with intermediate characteristics. Typically blooms purplish blue to lavender, August–November.
- Rice button (bushy white) aster (S. dumosum). Uncommon, occurring mostly in southern Missouri introduced in the city of St. Louis. Grows in fens, margins of sinkhole ponds, bottomland prairies, and other, usually moist place. Typically blooms white to pale pink or bluish-tinged, August–November.
- Wreath (white heath) aster (S. ericoides). Scattered to common in the Glaciated and Unglaciated Plains of northern and western Missouri mostly absent elsewhere. Upland prairies, loess hill prairies, glades, rich upland forests. Often forms colonies. Low, leafy, bushy plant to 3 feet. Leaves pointed, small, to only 3 inches long and less than ¼ inch wide at base, these usually dropping off by bloom time leaves are smaller toward the top of the plant. Flowerheads only to about ½ inch wide. Typically blooms white (rarely lavender to blue), July–October.
- White prairie aster (S. falcatum). Introduced native to western North America. There are historic collections of this plant from Jackson County and the city of St. Louis. The natural range of this species approaches northwestern Missouri, and this plant may one day be discovered in the loess hill prairies in that region. Typically blooms white, July–October.
- Smooth (smooth blue) aster (S. laeve). Scattered nearly statewide, but apparently absent from the Bootheel lowlands. Upland prairies, loess hill prairies, glades, ledges and tops of bluffs, forest openings, and less commonly in bottomland prairies, fens, and pond and lake edges. The foliage is bluish green the leaves smooth and nearly waxy, but with very rough margins. Stem leaves taper to a pointed tip, are widest at the base and strongly clasp the stem. Typically blooms lavender to purple to bluish purple, August–October.
- Tall white (panicled) aster (S. lanceolatum). Scattered nearly statewide, usually in moist or wet soils in a variety of low areas, but also in pastures, fencerows, ditches. Usually in dense colonies. A widespread, variable species with 4 recognized varieties these might be confused with a number of other native asters. To 5 feet tall, often hairy, especially at the tops of the plant. Leaves narrow, to 6 inches long and 1½ inch wide widest at middle. Typically blooms white (rarely pink, lavender, or bluish-tinged), August–October.
- White woodland aster (S. lateriflorum). Occurs nearly statewide, most common south of the Missouri River. Mostly occurs in wet areas: bottomland forests, rich upland forests, bases and ledges of bluffs, banks of streams, rivers, and spring branches, margins of ponds and lakes, sinkhole ponds, fens, sloughs, and moist depressions in prairies, plus pastures and gardens. This species can colonize and spread rapidly in disturbed sites, a characteristic that botanists often call “weediness.” Typically blooms white (rarely pinkish-tinged or light lavender), August–November.
- New England aster (S. novae-angliae). Scattered nearly statewide, but apparently absent from the Mississippi Lowlands and uncommon in parts of the northern and western Missouri plains. Bottomland prairies, moist places in upland prairies, fens, bases of bluffs, stream and river banks, margins of ponds and lakes, plus pastures, fencerows, and banks of ditches. Perhaps our most popular native aster in cultivation, and varieties with different growth forms and flower colors are available. A hairy plant to 6 feet tall, with clasping leaves to 4 inches long. Flower stalks and bracts are covered with gland-tipped hairs. Typically blooms reddish purple to purple (in cultivation, pink and white as well), July–October.
- Aromatic (oblong-leaved) aster (S. oblongifolium). Scattered, mostly south of the Missouri River, but extending northward locally mostly in counties along the Mississippi and Missouri rivers apparently absent from the Bootheel lowlands. Look for it in dry, rocky places: glades, ledges and tops of bluffs, upland prairies, and openings of dry upland forests. A fragrant, hairy aster only growing to about 2 feet tall. Use a hand lens to see the small, round glands on the leaves and upper stems. Leaves clasping, lacking teeth. Involucral bracts reflexed (bent backward), covered with glands, the basal set leaflike. Numerous small, leaflike bracts on the flower stalks. Typically blooms reddish purple to bluish purple (rarely pink), July–November.
- Ontario aster (S. ontarionis). Scattered nearly statewide, most common in counties along the Missouri and Mississippi rivers apparently absent from the Unglaciated Plains of northern Missouri. Bottomland forests, rich upland forests, swamps, sloughs, stream and river banks, margins of ponds and lakes, bases of bluffs, rarely on tops of bluffs and glades. Blooms white, August–October.
- Azure (sky blue) aster (blue devil) (S. oolentangiense formerly Aster azureus). Scattered nearly statewide. Glades, upland prairies, sand prairies, upland forests on rocky slopes, ledges and tops of bluffs. There is complex variation within this species. Usually less than 3 feet tall. Basal leaves rough, with long stalks, blades heart-shaped at the base, with or without teeth. Stem leaves smaller the higher on the plant, not heart-shaped at the base, at the top of the plant becoming stalkless. Typically blooms lavender to purple to blue (rarely pink or white), August–November.
- Small white aster (S. parviceps). Scattered, mostly in the eastern half of the state. Upland prairies, upland forests, ledges and tops of bluffs less commonly bottomland prairies, margins of ponds, and banks of streams also pastures, old fields, and cemeteries. With its inrolled spinlike tips to its involucral bracts, it looks similar to white heath aster (S. pilosum) but is much less common and has smaller, fewer-flowered heads. Typically blooms white, August–November.
- Spreading aster (purple daisy) (S. patens). Scattered mostly south of the Missouri River. Glades, upland prairies, openings of forests plus old fields, fencerows mostly on acidic substrates. Typically blooms purple to bluish purple, August–October.
- White heath aster (S. pilosum). Common statewide, in a wide variety of upland and lowland habitats. Considered among the most widespread and “weediest” of our native asters, not common in high-quality native habitats, more common in overgrazed pastures, roadsides, and other disturbed places. Spindly-looking plant with many small needle-like leaves all along the flower stems. Flowerheads usually only about ½ inch wide. Typically blooms white (rarely pink), August–November.
- Willow-leaved aster (S. praealtum). Scattered nearly statewide. Bottomland prairies, moist depressions in upland prairies, banks of streams, rivers, and spring branches, fens, margins of ponds and lakes, bottomland forests and rich upland forests plus ditches and other open, disturbed places. Often grows in dense colonies. With its attractively leafy branches and showy flowers, this is a good candidate for a wildflower garden, and it is often available at native wildflower nurseries. Reaches about 5 feet tall. Leaves rough, hairy, lance-shaped, to about 5 inches long, and about the same size all along the stem. Typically blooms purple or bluish purple, August–October.
- Glossy-leaved aster (S. puniceum). Scattered in the eastern half of the Ozark and Ozark Border divisions, with a disjunct population in Boone County. Fens, calcareous seepage areas along streams, and bottomland prairies. In our state, this species apparently represents relict populations from Pleistocene glacial times that survive and are confined to cool, moist microhabitats. Resembles New England aster, but lacks gland-tipped hairs on the flower stems, and hairs grow in lines along the stems. Typically blooms lavender to purple to bluish purple, August–October.
- Small white aster (frost flower) (S. racemosum). Scattered, mostly in the southern half of the state, most commonly in the Bootheel lowlands. Bottomland forests, swamps, moist depressions of upland prairies, banks of streams and rivers, margins of ponds, lakes, and sinkhole ponds, fens, and sloughs also ditches, and other moist, open, disturbed areas. Typically blooms white (rarely pink), August–October.
- Silky aster (S. sericeum). Scattered in the Ozark, Ozark Border, and Unglaciated Plains natural divisions, north locally to Lincoln County and along the Missouri River to Atchison County. Glades, upland prairies, and loess hill prairies dry, sandy places. This beautiful wildflower is available for sale at some wildflower nurseries and should be used more wildly in gardens. Named for the dense covering of silky hairs on the leaves, making them feel slick like silk. Typically blooms dark purple to nearly blue, August–October.
- Inland saltmarsh (freeway) aster (S. subulatum). Introduced. Scattered in the Bootheel lowlands, and apparently less common farther north and west. The native range of this species is in states to our south where it tolerates saline soils near brackish water habitats, but it has rather recently migrated northward in highly disturbed habitats, especially along roads that receive applications of salt during the winter. Where it is repeatedly mowed, this usually upright plant resprouts aggressively and forms a low, spreading, clump-forming plant. Distinctive for its hairless green to light bluish-green or sea green stems and leaves. This aster is a taprooted annual. Typically blooms white to pale bluish purple, September–January.
- Prairie aster (S. turbinellum). Scattered nearly statewide, but apparently absent from most of northwestern Missouri. Despite its common name, in our state this species is not usually found in prairies. In Missouri, it’s usually found in woodlands: openings in mesic to dry upland forests, glades, and ledges and tops of bluffs often on acidic substrates. This showy species is a good choice for a wildflower garden. Typically blooms lavender to purple to bluish purple, August–November.
- White arrowleaf aster (S. urophyllum formerly Aster sagittifolius). Scattered nearly statewide, but absent or uncommon in the far northwestern and southeastern corners of the state. Upland forests, margins of glades, ledges and tops of bluffs, banks of streams and rivers also pastures, old fields, fencerows, and other disturbed places. Typically blooms white, August–November.
See “Status” below to learn why the genus Aster, which used to be so huge and contained many similar-looking plants, was divided into several smaller genera.
- The Tatarian aster (A. tataricus) is the only “true” aster (in genus Aster) found growing wild in Missouri. Native to east Asia, it’s planted as a garden ornamental. It can grow aggressively, forming dense colonies, and sometimes escapes from cultivation, especially in urban areas. It has distinctive, very robust basal leaves that are paddle-shaped, up to 2 feet long and 6 inches wide, and usually present at flowering time. The leaves become noticeably smaller higher on the plant.
Other native wildflowers called asters or false asters include:
- Members of genus Boltonia, especially B. asteroides, called false aster or false starwort, which is the most common of our 3 species of Boltonia in the state. It is used in native plant gardening.
- Flat-topped white aster (Doellingeria umbellata), formerly placed in genus Aster it’s uncommon in Missouri, known only from fens in Lafayette County.
- Members of genus Eurybia (3 known from Missouri) used to be in genus Aster. Of these the most common, in northern Missouri, is single-stemmed bog aster (or southern prairie aster, E. hemispherica). In the Ozarks, forked aster (E. furcata) is scattered and uncommon. Large-leaved aster (E. macrophylla) has been recorded in four Ozark counties because plants in Missouri populations of this species produce few flowering stems any given year, it is usually overlooked.
- Stiff aster (stiff-leaved aster flax-leaved aster, Ionactis linariifolius) used to be in genus Aster. An attractive, clump-forming species, it grows scattered in the Ozarks, especially in acidic, rocky upland soils, and has gained popularity in native plant gardening.
- Upland white goldenrod (white upland aster sneezewort aster, Solidago ptarmicoides), genetically, is clearly a goldenrod, but it looks a lot like an aster and was long considered one. It grows in Ozark open areas such as roadsides, glades, pastures, and prairies.
You’ve succeeded in informing and inspiring me. Thanks! — Cathy Caldwell
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Another member of the figwort family is the foxglove (Digitalis purpurea), a short-lived perennial native to Western Europe. The plant has a vertical, upright habit, making it a good choice for borders. Foxglove sports rows of speckled tubular flowers in a range of colors. The flowers of the plant are highly attractive to bees and hummingbirds, which will flock to the garden to visit the plant. Foxglove does best in partial shade in USDA zones 4 to 9, in a well draining, heavily acidic soil that is kept moist. Strawberry foxglove (Digitalis mertonensis) is hardy to even cooler climates, thriving in USDA zone 3. Foxglove is poisonous if ingested, and is considered quite repellent by both rabbit and deer.