Interesting

Pereskia

Pereskia


Pereskia is a genus of about 17 tropical species of cacti, originating from Mexico to Brazil. The plants do not look much like other types of cacti, having substantial leaves and thin stems.

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Propagation

Grow rose cactus from seeds or from cuttings. Sow seeds in spring in a mix of half peat, half perlite, and keep the growing medium moist. Seeds germinate in 21 to 30 days. Take cuttings from young stems that have begun to harden. Don't let the cuttings dry, but put them immediately into sand or the mix used for seeds. Put the cuttings in bright light rather than direct sunlight to root. Rose cactus is often used as rootstock for grafting slower-growing succulent cactus because of its vigorous growth.

  • University of Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service: Plant of the Week: Pereskia
  • Plants of Deep South Texas Alfred Richardson and Ken King
  • Online Plant Guide: Pereskia grandiflora/Rose Cactus
  • The American Naturalist: Pereskia and the Origin of the Cactus Life-Form
  • University of Oklahoma Department of Microbiology & Plant Biology: Plant of the Week: Pereskia Corrugata
  • Purdue University NewCrop: Barbados Gooseberry Pereskia Aculeata Mill.

Cathryn Chaney has worked as a gardening writer since 2002. Her horticultural experience working in the nursery industry informs her garden articles, especially those dealing with arid landscaping and drought-tolerant gardening. Chaney also writes poetry, which has appears in "Woman's World" magazine and elsewhere. Chaney graduated from the University of Arizona in 1992 with a Bachelor of Arts in English.


Pereskia Species, Barbados Gooseberry, Blade-Apple Cactus, Lemonvine, Rose Cactus

Family: Cactaceae (kak-TAY-see-ee) (Info)
Genus: Pereskia (per-ESS-kee-uh) (Info)
Species: aculeata (ah-kew-lee-AY-tuh) (Info)
Synonym:Cactus pereskia
Synonym:Perescia aculeata var. godseffiana
Synonym:Pereskia pereskia

Category:

Water Requirements:

Sun Exposure:

Foliage:

Foliage Color:

Height:

Spacing:

Hardiness:

USDA Zone 9b: to -3.8 °C (25 °F)

USDA Zone 10a: to -1.1 °C (30 °F)

USDA Zone 10b: to 1.7 °C (35 °F)

USDA Zone 11: above 4.5 °C (40 °F)

Where to Grow:

Danger:

Plant has spines or sharp edges use extreme caution when handling

Bloom Color:

Bloom Characteristics:

Bloom Size:

Bloom Time:

Other details:

May be a noxious weed or invasive

Soil pH requirements:

Patent Information:

Propagation Methods:

Seed Collecting:

Allow unblemished fruit to ripen clean and dry seeds

Properly cleaned, seed can be successfully stored

Regional

This plant is said to grow outdoors in the following regions:

Gardeners' Notes:

On Nov 27, 2013, gregokla from Hulbert, OK wrote:

I have been growing Pereskia aculeata since the late 90's. My botany professor acquired this "weed" during his travels and gave it to me. It is still quite wild. I believe it could be an attractive, botanical alternative to razor wire. I root it in peat moss (no hormone needed) and feed it with water-soluble fertilizer. It is a man-eater!

On Apr 1, 2008, sladeofsky from Louisville, KY (Zone 6b) wrote:

Believed to be the ancestral plant of all other cacti.

On Oct 10, 2006, beadfulheart from Lake Charles, LA (Zone 9b) wrote:

I've heard this plant called both Mexican Lemon Cactus and Barbados Shrub. But whatever it is called it's a beautiful plant easy to grow and very easy to propagate. My mother keeps hers cut back to more of a bush while I tend to let mine grow as it will. None of our plants, nor the parent plant as far as I know, has ever bloomed.

Mine was severely broken/damaged by hurricane rita and never seemed to do well after that. So I recently cut the remaining stems up and replanted. Its now 12+ young healthy plants. This plant seems to thrive in many diverse conditions. with my mother's 'over' care, my basic care and even my daughter's total neglect. The original plant, that all of ours came from, was brought out of Mexico in the early 60's and lived for many years in a nursery in. read more Houston.

On Sep 8, 2006, Xenomorf from Phoenix, AZ (Zone 9b) wrote:

Another synonym of this plant is Cactus pereskia.

More common names are "Tsunya, Bugambilia Blanca, Camelia Blanca, Grosellero, Jasmнn de Uvas, Leafy Cactus, Lemon Vine, Ramo de Novia, Rose Cactus & Surinam Gooseberry.

On Jun 20, 2005, dready from warwick,
Bermuda (Zone 11) wrote:

Pereskia aculeata grows well from seed collected from ripe fruits. It can be kept in shrub form, but left to it's own devices it will vine out. Having escaped from cultivation here in Bermuda it scrambles unnoticed through hedgerows until the masses of orange fruits appear in late winter. The fruit has a mild pleasant flavour and is great in jams, preserves and desserts.the spines are soft and can simply be wiped off, although they generally fall off the fruit when fully ripe.

On Feb 8, 2005, cacti_lover from Henderson, NV (Zone 9b) wrote:

Being a tropical cactus, it has a difficult time here in the desert, although mine is still alive after five years. It doesn't like the extreme heat or the cold. It can still rot if watered too much. I had to give it shade and bring it indoors when it gets above 105F or below 35F. It should do well in southern Cal. and the Gulf coast.

On Aug 28, 2004, nosaradaniel from Nosara,
wrote:

P. aculenta is not a vine, it is actually a wax rose, which is
the same family but a different plant: Perescia bleo.

Origin: tropical America. It is a member of the Cactus family
and therefore has spiny stems. One of the most attractive for
use in gardens, it can grow to 3 metres in height but can also
be kept pruned into a bushy shrub it has woody stems, fleshy, pale green leaves, and creamy orange to pinkish flowers followed by funny yellow fruit (see pics). Pereskia likes full sun and dry conditions. Propagation is by means of cuttings.

On Nov 12, 2003, Monocromatico from Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil (Zone 11) wrote:

This is an uncommon cactus, a climber with real, fleshy leaves. The spines are present though (not like P. grandiflora, where there are only vestiges of spines), and they are quite rough. One can use this to cover fences, for safetyґs sake. The flower is flat, pink to white, very attractive.


Contents

  • 1 Description
  • 2 Taxonomy
    • 2.1 Phylogeny and evolution
    • 2.2 Species
      • 2.2.1 Clade A = Leuenbergeria
      • 2.2.2 Clade B = Pereskia s.s.
      • 2.2.3 Synonyms
  • 3 Distribution
    • 3.1 Leuenbergeria (Clade A)
    • 3.2 Pereskia s.s. (Clade B)
  • 4 Uses
  • 5 References
    • 5.1 Bibliography
  • 6 External links

Plants are leafy and spiny, treelike, shrubby, and often scrambling. Many species may be treelike or shrubby, 2–7 m high, but occasionally at 10 m. Pereskia aculeata forms clambering shrubs or climbing vines 3–10 m long. Roots are sometimes thickened and tuberous. Leaves are generally alternate, broad, flattened, deciduous, usually with petioles, 2–20 cm long. Areoles exist on the axils of the leaves, usually with wool, and bear spines and leaves. The young primary areoles on twigs normally have up to eight spines, while areoles on trunks usually have more (15 to 40, up to 120) straight, usually black spines of unequal length. Flowers are solitary, or sometimes in inflorescences of 2–15 flowers (P. aceulata can have 70, while P. grandiflora can have 10–30) the flowers are 2–8 cm in diameter, usually pink, rose, or purple, but sometimes orange, yellow, white, or cream. Fruits, 2–7 (or up to 10 cm) long, are solitary or in clusters. They are variable in shape, but generally oblong and/or pear-shaped. When mature, fruits usually become green or yellow-green but also orange, reddish, or brownish. Three species have very small, glossy black, and globose fruits, at 0.5 to 1.5 cm. Seeds are 2–7 mm large, obovate to kidney shaped, and glossy black.

Most likely Charles Plumier collected the first Pereskia specimens from the Caribbean between 1689 and 1695, but none of these have survived. Although Plumier described Pereskia in 1703, Linnaeus placed Plumier's two species in his Cactus, as C. pereskia and C. portacifolius. Philip Miller brought the original name back in 1754, and so by the rules of botanical nomenclature, he is credited as the author.

The genus Rhodocactus (A.Berger) F.M.Knuth has been brought into synonymy with this genus, as well as different orthographic variants: Peirescia Zucc. (orth. var.), Peireskia Steud. (orth. var.) and Perescia Lem. (orth. var.).

Phylogeny and evolution Edit

A 2005 study suggested that the genus Pereskia was basal within the Cactaceae, and confirmed earlier suggestions that it was paraphyletic, i.e. did not include all the descendants of a common ancestor. The Bayesian consensus cladogram from this study is shown below. [2]

The species studied divide into the two clades as shown below.

P. aureiflora
P. bleo
P. guamacho
P. lychnidiflora
P. marcanoi
P. portulacifolia
P. quisqueyana
P. zinniiflora

P. aculeata
P. bahiensis
P. diaz-romeroana
P. grandifolia
P. horrida
P. nemorosa
P. sacharosa
P. stenantha
P. weberiana

A more recent 2011 study using fewer genes also found that Pereskia was divided into these two clades. [3] In 2013, it was suggested that the two clades be recognized as distinct genera, Pereskia Clade A becoming Leuenbergeria and Pereskia Clade B becoming a more tightly circumscribed Pereskia sensu stricto. [4]

The two clades of Pereskia sensu lato differ in their geographical distribution: with one exception, Leuenbergeria (Clade A) is found around the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea whereas Pereskia s.s. (Clade B) occurs south of the Amazon Basin. Species of Leuenbergeria always lack two key features of the stem present in most of the remaining "caulocacti": like most non-cacti, their stems begin to form bark early in the plant's life and also lack stomata – structures which control the admission of air into a plant and hence control photosynthesis. By contrast, species of Pereskia s.s. typically delay forming bark and have stomata on their stems, thus giving the stem the potential to become a major organ for photosynthesis. [2]

The two genera have been placed in separate subfamilies of the Cactaceae: Leuenbergeria being the sole genus in the subfamily Leuenbergerioideae, and Pereskia s.s. the sole genus in the subfamily Pereskioideae. [5]

Species Edit

Species recognized by International Cactaceae Systematics Group. (Anderson E. F., 2001)

Clade A = Leuenbergeria Edit

The following species are now placed in the segregate genus Leuenbergeria, for example by Plants of the World Online: [1]

  • Pereskia aureifloraF.Ritter = Leuenbergeria aureiflora(F. Ritter) Lodé
  • Pereskia bleo(Kunth) DC = Leuenbergeria bleo(Kunth) Lodé
  • Pereskia guamachoF.A.C.Weber = Leuenbergeria guamacho(F.A.C. Weber) Lodé
  • Pereskia lychnidifloraDC = Leuenbergeria lychnidiflora(DC.) Lodé
  • Pereskia marcanoiAreces = Leuenbergeria marcanoi(Areces) Lodé
  • Pereskia portulacifolia(L.) DC = Leuenbergeria portulacifolia(L.) Lodé
  • Pereskia quisqueyanaAlain = Leuenbergeria quisqueyana(Alain) Lodé
  • Pereskia zinniifloraDC = Leuenbergeria zinniiflora(DC.) Lodé

Clade B = Pereskia s.s. Edit

  • Pereskia aculeataMill.
  • Pereskia bahiensisGürke
  • Pereskia diaz-romeroanaCárdenas
  • Pereskia grandifoliaHaw.
  • Pereskia horridaDC
  • Pereskia nemorosaRojas Acosta
  • Pereskia sacharosaGriseb.
  • Pereskia stenanthaF.Ritter
  • Pereskia weberianaK.Schum.

Synonyms Edit

Most of the species are found in dry forests or thorny scrub, in tropical climates with a dry season of two to five months. The two clades of Pereskia s.l. differ in their geographical distribution, with one exception.

Leuenbergeria (Clade A) Edit

Species placed in Leuenbergeria (Clade A) are found on Pacific coastal area, around the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea.

Pereskia lychnidiflora Pacific coastal area from southern Mexico to Costa Rica in lowland dry forest from sea level to 1000 m (3300 ft).

Pereskia bleo Panama and Colombia along rivers and in secondary forests, from sea level to 500 m (1600 ft).

Pereskia guamacho Drier regions of Colombia and Venezuela, from sea level to 800 m (2600 ft) possibly also the Dutch Antilles.

Caribbean islands species. These plants are functionally dioecious, flowers imperfectly unisexual.

Pereskia marcanoi Semideciduous forests on Hispaniola at elevations of about 500 m (1600 ft). Pereskia portulacifolia Hispaniola. Pereskia quisqueyana Hispaniola. Endemic species. Only type locality in the southeastern part of the Dominican Republic at sea level. Pereskia zinniiflora Lowlands of southern and southwestern Cuba.

Pereskia aureiflora One exception, occurs in clade B species area. Caatinga formation, Brazil, northeastern Minas Gerais and southern Bahia, at elevations of 300–700 m (980–2300 ft).

Pereskia s.s. (Clade B) Edit

Species remaining in Pereskia s.s. (Clade B) occur south of the Amazon Basin, in eastern part of Brazil, south to northern Uruguay and Argentina, Gran Chaco region, and lowlands and dry walleys on the Andes in Peru and Bolivia, though not on the Pacific side.

Brazil lowlands, caatinga formation:

Pereskia bahiensis Caatinga vegetation in Bahia, Brazil, at elevations of 400-900 m (1300-2950 ft). Pereskia stenantha Caatinga vegetation of southern central Bahia, Brazil, at elevations of 400-600 m (1300-2000 ft). Pereskia grandifolia Eastern Brazil but has escaped cultivation in many places. Subspecies violacea Transition zone between forest and savanna at elevations of 600-1400 m (2000-4600 ft).

Pereskia nemorosa Drier forests and woodlands in lowlands in southern Brazil, Paraguay, northeastern Argentina, and northwestern Uruguay region.

Pereskia sacharosa The Gran Chaco including Mato Grosso region (Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay), and lowlands of the Andes in northwestern Argentina at elevations of 1000–2500 m.(3300–8200 ft).

Pereskia diaz-romeroana Dry mountain valleys of central Bolivia at elevations of 1300–2000 m (4300–6600 ft).

Pereskia weberiana Dry forests in the Bolivian Andean valleys of the Rio Beni, at elevations of 1100–1900 m (3600–6200 ft)

Pereskia horrida Dry forest and brushland in the Peruan mountain valleys of the Maranon at elevations of 500-2100 (1600–6900 ft).

Pereskia aculeata Northern, eastern, and southeastern South America, and Caribbean. From sea level to 1000 m (3300 ft). Introduced in United States, Mexico, South Africa and Australia.

According to Anderson, Edward F. (2001) and Edwards, Erika J. Nyffeler, Reto & Donoghue, Michael J. (2005). [2]

The genus is not of great economic importance.

Pereskia aculeata The fruit are edible, widely cultivated. Fruits containing numerous small seeds. It somewhat resembles the gooseberry in appearance and is of excellent flavor. This plant is a declared weed in South Africa.

Pereskia guamacho The fruit are edible, collected from wild plants.

Pereskia bleo The crushed leaves have been used to clarify drinking water.

Pereskia lychnidiflora The spines are 12 cm long and have been used as needles in Guatemala.

Pereskia grandifolia Cultivated for flowers.

The most common usage being as hedges they are easily transplanted and quickly grow into an impenetrable thicket, as well as flowering prolifically.

Pereskia aculeata In horticulture being more tolerant of moisture than more succulent cacti, they can be used as rootstock for grafting of Zygocactus to create miniature trees.


Lemon Vine 'Godseffiana'

Category:

Water Requirements:

Drought-tolerant suitable for xeriscaping

Sun Exposure:

Foliage:

Foliage Color:

Height:

Spacing:

Hardiness:

USDA Zone 9a: to -6.6 °C (20 °F)

USDA Zone 9b: to -3.8 °C (25 °F)

USDA Zone 10a: to -1.1 °C (30 °F)

USDA Zone 10b: to 1.7 °C (35 °F)

USDA Zone 11: above 4.5 °C (40 °F)

Where to Grow:

Can be grown as an annual

Danger:

Plant has spines or sharp edges use extreme caution when handling

Bloom Color:

Bloom Characteristics:

Bloom Size:

Bloom Time:

Other details:

Soil pH requirements:

Patent Information:

Propagation Methods:

From herbaceous stem cuttings

Seed Collecting:

Regional

This plant is said to grow outdoors in the following regions:

Wilkes Barre, Pennsylvania

Gardeners' Notes:

On May 4, 2015, BayAreaTropics from Hayward, CA wrote:

Slow growing choice plant. In the warmest summers will bloom. It is only slightly frost hardy and should be protected from freezing temps. Recovery from them is like molasses.
Watch for winter rains that can cause rot also. Colorful and not often seen at larger then a cutting around here.

On Apr 4, 2008, MotherNature4 from Bartow, FL (Zone 9a) wrote:

Though this plant grows too large for my purposes and has large spines, it is suitable for growing in hanging baskets where it can't get away and can be pruned to a desireable size. It is a primitive member of the cactus family, having salmon colored leaves that are evergreen in the warmer range.


Watch the video: Cactus with Rahmatullah Andar. کاکتوس با رحمت الله اندر فرمانده سابق طالبان